In this week's news, we talk about bones, robotic technologies, and artificial intelligence which helps surgeons cure knee arthritis.
The latest technologies and research methodologies help doctors, surgeons, and patients every week and every month. It is essential to be aware of the newest and to keep pace with them. In this week's news, we try to talk about bones, robotic technologies, and artificial intelligence which helps surgeons cure knee arthritis.
Stay tuned with us.
In recent years, robotic-assisted technologies helped surgeries to be more accurate and precise. As the careful and correct placement of pedicle screws is essential for avoiding the potential complications in spinal fusion surgeries, Mayo Clinic uses this technology to have a well-choreographed process.
They believe that robot-assisted technology has clinical benefits, adds value, and also helps patients.
In patients with a bone deformity or poor bone quality, it is essential to use this technology because robots take advantage of CT imaging and navigational software to find the optimal pathway for inserting pedicle screws.
Dr. Freedman, the orthopedic surgeon at Mayo Clinic, says: "Robotic assistance gives us real-time imaging that reliably depicts complex anatomy…We can find a path that goes through the patient's best bone as opposed to softer bone."
"The robotic arm places the guidance tube in the preferred alignment, and each screw can then be placed to a depth and in an alignment that matches its mates, which makes for a better overall construct," Dr. Freedman says. "A system that robotically aligns the screws' trajectories makes it easier to insert the spinal rods and induces less stress on the screws we placed."
The robot finds the pathway by the software guides and makes it possible for the robotic arm to reach the position. "The robotic arm places the guidance tube in the preferred alignment, and each screw can then be placed to a depth and in an alignment that matches its mates, which makes for a better overall construct," Dr. Freedman says. "A system that robotically aligns the screws' trajectories makes it easier to insert the spinal rods and induces less stress on the screws we placed."
Artificial intelligence, like robot- technology, helps surgeons to improve the process of the surgery. It is helpful to classify knee osteoarthritis on radiographs better.
"This technology has the potential to significantly decrease the likelihood of inaccurate assessment of radiographs in the diagnosis and treatment of knee arthritis," Adam J.Schwartz, M.D said. "There is currently no standardized approach, and quite a bit of variability, in reading these radiographs. Reducing that variability can facilitate clinical decision-making and improve outcomes for patients."
Dr. Schwartz believes that using AI improves efficiency and reduces variability. They use a convolutional neural network as a type of deep learning tool to evaluate visual imagery.
This deep learning tool uses different algorithms to process raw data like images. This process reduces the potential for errors in osteoarthritis severe classification.
A study published in Science Advances announced a development in healing severe fractures in thigh or shin bone. The researchers at Lund University in Sweden found a way that combines a bone substitute and drugs to regenerate fractured bones. They used the already approved drugs and materials and packaged them with a new combination.
"In cases involving severe open fractures in the lower leg, over 5 percent of all fractures fail to heal. With our method, we will be able to avoid taking bone from the pelvis, which is a major gain for the patient."
The German and Swedish researchers use three components to inject the cocktail successfully:
"The bone protein we use has had negative effects in previous studies due to secondary premature bone resorption, among other things. We have successfully mitigated this effect with the bisphosphonate and, by packaging the drug in a slowly resorbing bone substitute, we can control the speed of release. In the current study with the combination, we achieved a six-fold reduction in the amount of protein compared to previous efforts while still inducing bone formation. The result was that even fractures with an extensive bone defect could heal without complications. We believe this finding will be of great clinical use in the future," says Deepak Raina.
Reference: Orthopedic Product News
Professor Taun Nguyen published a recent study at the Garvan Institute of Medical Research, which can calculate skeletal age with a computational model to estimate bone fracture risk and premature death.
Knowing skeletal age is good for the doctors to identify patients with a high risk of bone fracture.
"A fracture shortens life expectancy, even more so in men than in women. But there is much complacency in the community when it comes to bone health - only 20% of those with fragility fractures are taking approved treatments for osteoporosis, which could significantly reduce their risk of further fractures," says Professor Tuan Nguyen, Head of the Genetic Epidemiology of Osteoporosis Lab at Garvan, Professor of Predictive Medicine at the University of Technology Sydney.
Their model gathered the data of patient's age, bonde density, history of previous fractures, and other health issues.
They believe that when a 70-year-old has a previous fracture, his skeletal age rises to 87.
"In our new model, we quantified the intricate transitions between fracture, re-fracture, and mortality. We define skeletal age as the age of an individual's skeleton that results from their risk factors for fracture," explains Professor Nguyen.
They hope to develop their online calculator to better discuss with their patients about improving their bone health, taking medications, exercising, and a better diet full of calcium and vitamin D.